Gallows as we think of them today usually consist of two upright posts and a crossbeam from which a rope with a noose at the end hangs, usually with a trapdoor that will open, or something for the hanged person to stand on that gets pushed or kicked out from under them. But this traditional version of the gallows was not documented until 1760 in England.
Gallows throughout history also refer to crucifixion during the Romans rule, and in the Middle Ages in Paris a square structure with wooden columns from which people would hang in the elements before being dropped into a pit to die.
Gallows in their most notable form are meant to break the persons spine, killing them instantly, but often people died by strangulation or even beheading. Until 1832 in England many people were hanged by being drawn up from the platform by a heavy weight, causing death by strangulation which would have been very slow and painful.
Public hangings were very popular and were even treated as good old entertainment for the whole family. In fact, the last public hanging in the United States was only in 1936, with the last public hanging in the United Kingdom taking place in 1868.
As a tattoo, gallows are often done in heavy blackwork, pointillism or dotwork, American traditional, or black and grey. Gallows tattoos are popular with people interested in the more macabre side of life, and many artists who create darker imagery use gallows as a common theme.
For those who are unfamiliar, the guillotine is a device made for execution by beheading. The structure consists of a tall wooden frame from which a razor sharp and heavy blade hangs ready to fall on its victim who is placed in a stock of sorts, leaving the neck exposed and ready to be separated from its body.
The guillotine as we know it was allegedly invented by Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin as a more humane way to execute people. It was significantly quicker than even regular beheading by axe which could be easily botched and would often take two or more swings to finally kill the victim. This specific name “guillotine” dates back to 1789, France, but similar devices with different structural designs existed for centuries before; such as the “planke” in Germany and Flanders dating back to the Middle Ages, and the “Halifax Gibbet” in England which may have been used as far back as antiquity. But the French guillotine design was specifically based off of two other existing execution devices; the “mannaia” from Italy during the Renaissance, and the “Scottish Maiden” from Scotland which was used from the 16th to 18th centuries.
Dr. Guillotin was apparently horrified when the device was named after him, and his family even tried (and failed) to have the name changed in the early 19th century. The French Guillotine claimed its first victim in April 1972, and its last use was in France in 1977 where it was still the main method of execution until capital punishment was stopped in 1981. While hundreds of thousands of people met their bloody end underneath the glinting blade of a guillotine, the most infamous time of its usage was during the French Revolution which took place from September 1793 – July 1794. During this relatively short time a shocking 16,594 people were executed by the guillotine in France, with 2,639 in Paris alone.
Public beheadings existed from the beginning of the French Revolution until 1939 in France, but during the Revolution it was extremely popular for anyone, including families to check out an execution and even grab a bite to eat at the famous “Cabaret de la Guillotine” before watching the bloodbath. There was even a well known trio of women called the “Tricoteuses,” who used to sit next to the guillotine and knitted in between executions. Theatrics even became popular for those being executed with some dancing on their way up the steps, and others offering jokes and sarcastic remarks before their heads rolled away.
As tattoos, guillotines are popular with those interested in the darker side of life and history buffs alike. They are easily recognizable and can be done in many styles including American traditional, neo-traditional, black and grey, blackwork, and woodblock print styles. They are often accompanied by decapitated heads, skulls, flowers, flames, and blood.